of Lamination Terms
Pages that have stuck together in a block, as may happen when cellulose
acetate film exudes plasticizers.
A term describing paper or board that has been treated with an alkaline
substance, such as calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, to create
an alkaline reserve. This reserve, beyond the amount required to create
a neutral pH in the paper, will continue to neutralize acids as the
material is exposed to external pollutants or other sources, helping
maintain an alkaline or neutral pH beyond the time of treatment.
A plastic prepared from cotton linters (fibers left after ginning)
and/or purified wood pulp. Cellulose acetate is clear, hard, and glossy,
with little tear strength. Plasticizers are added to cellulose acetate
to increase its flexibility. First developed in 1865, it was introduced
as safety film by Eastman Kodak in 1908; the first commercial cellulose
acetate, called Celanese, was manufactured in Great Britain in 1919.
It was used widely for lamination from the 1930s until the early 1970s.
The process of removing or reducing acidity in paper or other materials.
Paper is often deacidified using a mild alkali bath, which neutralizes
any acid present and then remains in the fibers of the paper to act
as a buffer against acidity that may develop in the future.
The process of reversing lamination, usually through immersion in
successive baths of acetone or another solvent.
Potentially damaging conditions that are an intrinsic aspect of paper
or other objects, such as the potential for high acidity present in
papers made of wood pulp.
Blank neutral (non-acid) or buffered tissue or paper that is placed
between document pages to separate them. Interleaving can help prevent
the transfer of inks or other media to adjacent pages. Buffered interleaving
can also reduce damage from the acids inherent in many papers.
Lightweight, flexible papers made from the bark of the Kozo tree.
Their long fibers are delicate but strong, making them ideal for mending
The plastic film, often cellulose acetate, in which a document is
enclosed through lamination.
A general term for fusing together thin layers of different materials.
In archival contexts, lamination refers specifically to the process
of layering a sheet of paper with stronger materials, in order to
strengthen the paper. The standard method, developed by William Barrow,
used heat and pressure to fuse paper between two thin sheets of a
plastic (usually cellulose acetate).
A registered trademark for a line of lignin-free, sulfur-free archival
papers that contain an alkaline reserve and an interior layer of zeolites.
Available as interleaving, mat boards, containers, and the like, MicroChamber
is designed to absorb airborne pollutants and off-gassed byproducts
A method of protecting frequently handled papers from oil, grease,
and moisture. The document is placed between two sheets of Mylar,
a colorless inert sheet polyester, which are then sealed with pressure-sensitive
tape or welding.
A variety of chemicals added to cellulose acetate film and other plastics
during manufacture in order to increase the plastics' flexibility.
A form of loose-leaf binder, in which punched or slotted leaves are
attached to two screw posts. This method, sometimes known as a transfer
binding, was a popular means of re-binding volumes that had been disbound
for lamination. It may leave brittle pages vulnerable to snapping
at the binding.
To make soluble. In a conservation sense, a substance that has become
susceptible to dissolving in a liquid such as water or acetone. Solubilized
inks or pigments will run, bleed, or smear.
A vinegar- or ammonia-like odor, produced when the cellulose acetate
molecule breaks down and releases (off-gasses) acetic acid. The presence
of vinegar syndrome signals active and irreversible deterioration
of laminated objects. Off-gassing may seriously damage other objects
A group of naturally occurring minerals that readily absorb liquids
and gasses. Also known as molecular sieves, zeolites are used to trap
potentially harmful off-gassing or pollutants.
to Guidelines for the Care of
Works on Paper with Cellulose Acetate Lamination
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