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A CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, FOR K-12
INTRODUCTION NW COAST ARCTIC SUBARCTIC
GENERAL CALIFORNIA PLAINS NORTHEAST
SOUTHWEST - PLATEAU - GREAT BASIN SOUTHEAST

PLATEAU TRADITIONAL STORIES

Clark, Ella C. Indian Legends from the Northern Rockies. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1966. 350 pages. (Civilization of the American Indian; v. 82). (secondary).

Original sources are cited in this collection of 121 traditional stories, personal narratives, and historical traditions from thirteen tribes of the Northern Rockies. The stories are arranged by language group, each section preceded by a brief historical note on the tribes represented. This valuable, clearly written resource includes source notes, a bibliography, and an index.

Monroe, Jean Guard; Williamson, Ray A.; Sturat, Edgar, illus. They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1987. 118 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book is a well-documented presentation of American Indian star stories. The first two chapters compare various myths about the Pleiades and the Big Dipper. The rest of the book is arranged by tribe or region---Southwest, Pawnee, Plains, California, Northwest Coast, and Southeast. An introductory paragraph to each story provides a brief outline of the tribe's history. Where available, explanations are suggested as to how the stories might relate to the seasonal movement of the stars. A bibliography provides sources (generally scholarly papers) for each myth presented. The preface notes that such stories reinforce behavioral standards for the people. It also explains that the stories are meant to be read aloud, since a certain quality is always lost when an oral text is set down in print. Black-and-white drawings. Includes an index and a glossary, which provides a pronunciation guide.

Nashone; Coates, Ross, illus. Grandmother Stories of the Northwest. Sacramento, CA: Sierra Oaks Publishing Company; 1988. 52 pages. (lower elementary).

These five stories are based on original Northwest stories as told to rancher Lucullus V. McWhorter by tribal elders in the early 1900s. Includes black-and-white drawings and a glossary.

PLATEAU NON-FICTION

Ashwell, Reg; Thorton, J. M., illus. Indian Tribes of the Northwest. North Vancouver, B.C.: Hancock House; 1989. 64 pages. (secondary).

This book consists of one- and two-page descriptions of the traditional lifeways and cultures of s American Indian groups in British Columbia. Illustrated with archival photographs and line drawings.

Beckman, Stephen Dow. The Indians of Western Oregon: This Land Was Theirs. Coos Bay, OR: Arago Books; 1977. 203 pages. (secondary) *.

This is an excellent, detailed history of the Chinook and lesser-known Indian groups of Western Oregon. The book includes origin stories; a clearly presented introduction to the science of archaeology; a discussion of the peopling of America; post-Contact decline; loss of land; and, for some groups, loss of legal status as American Indians. While the book focuses on groups in Oregon, it addresses general issues relating to American Indian history. Includes extensive notes, an annotated bibliography, a glossary, and an index.

Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. New York, NY: Holt & Co.; 1991; c1970. 512 pages. (secondary) *.

The Western tribes' displacement from their lands, confinement to reservations, and the consequent destruction of traditional culture are carefully and compassionately recounted in this compelling and highly readable history (1860--1890). Unlike most other histories covering these topics, the book presents the events as experienced by the victims. The main sources are official records of U.S.-Indian treaty councils and meetings. The reasonableness and humanity expressed by the American Indian spokesmen during these encounters, as recounted here, do much to counter the stereotype of "ignorant," or "savage" Indians, and the courageous spirit they reveal evokes admiration and respect. Chapters are arranged chronologically, each devoted to a particular tribe or campaign. The final chapter describes the growth and significance of the Ghost Dance movement, and the Battle of Wounded Knee. A map shows the location and dates of the main actions. Sources are cited in the extensive notes. Archival photographs, bibliography, and index are included.

Buan, Carolyn M.; Lewis, Richard, eds. The First Oregonians: An illustrated Collection of Essays on Traditional Lifeways, Federal-Indian Relations, and the State's Native People Today. Portland, OR: Oregon Council for the Humanities; 1991. 127 pages. (secondary) *.

This overview of the nine federally recognized tribal groups in Oregon presents information on traditional lifeways, languages, Euro-American contact, U.S.-Indian relations, misconceptions about Indians, and Oregon Indians today. The final section contains essays describing projects undertaken by tribes to help recover their people's heritage. An excellent resource, illustrated with archival and contemporary photographs.

Muckle, Robert J. The First Nations. Vancouver, B.C.: UBC Press, 1998. 146 pages. (secondary).

This readable, general introduction to the native peoples of British Columbia describes who the First Nations are, what archaeological records reveal about their past, their traditional lifeways (religion and mythology, healing practices, language, etc.), and how outside influences and events (the fur trade, gold rush, residential schools) have brought about culture change and modernization. The book is well illustrated with black and white photographs and maps. Appendices list the First Nations and major ethnic groups as well as provide excerpts of significant political issues. The book also contains a glossary and selected bibliography.

Sherrow, Victoria. Indians of the Plateau and Great Basin. New York, NY: Facts On File; 1992. 96 pages. (The First Americans). (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This book is a visually appealing, well-written account of the tribal roots, lifeways, rituals, and history of the Indian tribes of the Plateau and Great Basin. A section on "Tribes Today" is included. Black-and-white archival photographs illustrate the text, and full-color inserts feature the desert landscape, traditional daily activities, spiritual beliefs, and modern life. Maps of the Great Basin and Plateau culture areas and an index are included.

PLATEAU FICTION

Balch, Frederic Homer. The Bridge of the Gods: A Romance of Indian Oregon. 1992 ed. Portland, OR: Binford & Morts; 1890. 286 pages. (secondary) ?.

This turn-of-the-century novel is about an 18th-century New England minister who sets out to Christianize the Indians of Oregon. Indians are portrayed as depraved, cruel, and dirty. The following passage is typical of the writing: "The (Indian) camp...swarms with wolfish looking dogs, and dirty, unclad children. Heaps of refuse, heads and feet of game, lie decaying among the wigwams, tainting the air with their disgusting odor. Here and there an ancient withered specimen of humanity sits in the sun absorbing its rays with a dull, animal-like sense of enjoyment, and a group of warriors lie idly talking...the camp has the sluggish aspect that an Indian camp always presents at noonday."

Evans, Shirlee. Tree Tall to the Rescue. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press; 1987. 144 pages. (secondary).

This is a sequel to Tree Tall and the Whiteskins and Tree Tall and the Horse Race. In the third Tree Tall novel, Tree Tall attempts to convert his grandmother to Christianity before her death. "She must not die thinking she will go to a happy place. I must tell her of Jesus," Tree Tall muses. Christianity is presented as being more powerful (and better) than Native religion. An afterword identifies the fictional characters as members of one of fourteen tribes moved to the Siletz Reservation in Oregon in the mid-1800s, and documents the history of the Siletz peoples into recent times.

KUTENAI TRADITIONAL STORIES

Tanaka, Beatrice; Gay, Michel illus. The Chase: A Kutenai Indian Tale. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, Inc.; 1991. 32 pages. (lower elementary).

This Kutenai story for very young readers is preceded by a short description of the Kutenai. The humorous story with animal characters contains appealing illustrations. The source of the legend is not cited.

KUTENAI FICTION

Thomasma, Kenneth; Brouwer, Jack. Pathki Nana: Kootenai Girl. Jackson, WY: Grandview Publishing; 1991. 163 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This coming-of-age story set in the 1780s refreshingly features a girl and her grandmother/mentor as the main characters. Pathki Nana, an eight-year-old Kutenai girl who feels she can't do anything right, goes to the mountains to seek her personal guardian spirit. Adventures follow as she catches Cut Ears, an adopted band member, stealing horses. He stalks her as she attempts to return to her people. Alone in the mountains she must learn to survive on her own as she outwits Cut Ears. She returns to her people as a hero and a young woman.

MODOC NON-FICTION

Faulk, Odie B.; Faulk, Laura E. The Modoc. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1988. 96 pages. Porter, Frank W. III, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This clearly written history of the Modoc people (who refer to themselves as the Ma Klaks) opens with a brief overview of pre-Contact lifeways. Subsequent chapters changes in their culture, their efforts to preserve traditions, their assignment to an inter-tribal reservation (1864), the Modoc Wars (1872--73), and subsequent removal of part of the group to Oklahoma. The final chapter describes the end of federal recognition of the tribe, the Modoc's success in reinstating recognition (1978), and present-day efforts to preserve their heritage and tradition. Illustrated with maps, and archival and contemporary photographs. Includes a bibliography, index, and a Modoc-At-A-Glance section.

NEZ PERCE BIOGRAPHIES

Burt, Olive W.; Moyers, William, illus. Chief Joseph: Boy of the Nez Perce. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc.; 1967. 200 pages. (Childhood of Famous Americans). (elementary) ?.

This biography of Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph focuses on his childhood. No references or documentation support the extensive dialogue and anecdotal events described. The book includes a timeline of important dates, questions on the story, and lists of things to look up and do. Although some of the questions and activities are useful, others are leading questions subtly perpetuating preconceived notions about Indians; for example, "What former presidents of our country once helped to fight Indians?" and "Find out what advantages present-day Indians have living on reservations." These questions do not encourage balanced views. Unappealing illustrations. Also includes a vocabulary listing and short list of books for further reading.

Fox, Mary Virginia. Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians: Champion of Liberty. Chicago IL: Children's Press; 1992. 111 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

The early chapters in this biography give a brief history of the Nez Perce, their origin story, their role in the Lewis and Clark mission, and the effect of Christian missions. The opening chapter, however, is a preview of events of 1877---the thwarting of Chief Joseph's attempt to comply with government orders to move his people to a reservation. Characters and events are presented without enough background information to allow the reader to make sense of what is going on. Most of the book, however, is given over to subsequent military actions, described in exciting detail, as Chief Joseph attempts to lead his people to safety. Chief Joseph's final years are movingly portrayed. Unfortunately, no map is provided to show the location of the events. Includes black-and-white photographs, reproductions of engravings, a chronology of national and international events during Chief Joseph's lifetime, and an index.

Freedman, Russell. Indian Chiefs. New York, NY: Holiday House; 1987. 139 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

The story of how the West was lost is told through the biographies of six chiefs who were faced with westward expansion by Euroamericans: Red Cloud (Oglala Sioux), Satanta (Kiowa), Quanah Parker (Comanche), Washakie (Shoshone), Joseph (Nez Perce), and Sitting Bull (Hunkpapa Sioux). Whether the chiefs cooperated or resisted, the end result was the same in all cases---dispossession and removal to reservations. Key elements that emerge in all six biographies are the deliberate annihilation of the buffalo and consistent breaking of treaties by the United States. This useful reference book is well-illustrated with archival photographs.

Hook, Jason; Hook, Richard, illus. Chief Joseph: Guardian of the Nez Perce. Dorset, UK: Firebrand Books; 1989. 48 pages. (Heroes and Warriors). (secondary).

This is a well-written and sympathetic biography of Chief Joseph (1840--1905) of the Nez Perce, who, in an era of violent conflict between the American Indians and the whites, struggled to maintain peace. This detailed work includes a chronology of events, bibliography, and index. Illustrated with maps, diagrams, full-color plates, and archival photographs.

Jassem, Kate; Baxter, Robert, illus. Chief Joseph: Leader of Destiny. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates; 1979. 48 pages. (lower elementary).

This easy-to-read account of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perces' flight to Canada is illustrated with maps and monochrome watercolors.

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Patriot Chiefs: A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1961. 364 pages. (secondary) .

The life stories of nine outstanding leaders in Indian resistance, from different times, places, and nations are recounted in this volume. The author explains that "While this is not a history of American Indians...the subjects were selected to provide variety in Indian backgrounds and culture, geographic areas and historic periods, and particular large-scale problems that led to crises and conflicts. Arranged chronologically, they help to convey in ordered sense a narrative outline of much Indian history." Although it was published thirty years ago, this book remains one of the best written and most readable books of its kind. Included are biographies of Hiawatha, King Philip, Pope, Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Black Hawk, Crazy Horse, and Chief Joseph.

Taylor, Marian W. Chief Joseph: Nez Perce Leader. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers; 1993. 110 pages. (North American Indians of Achievement). (secondary).

This is a well-written biography of Chief Joseph, the Nez Perce leader who attempted to lead his people peacefully from their homeland in Oregon's Wallowa Valley to Idaho, where the U.S. government ordered the Nez Perce to resettle. The journey became a flight from the U.S. Cavalry that pursued the Nez Perce for almost 2000 miles, culminating in an ambush near the Canadian border where the Nez Perce were seeking refuge with Sitting Bull. Chief Joseph spent the remainder of his years attempting to return his people to their homeland.

Yates, Diana. Chief Joseph: Thunder Rolling Down from the Mountains. Staten Island, NY: Ward Hill Press; 1992. 137 pages. (Unsung Americans). (upper elementary/secondary)

This biography of Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph describes his early years in the Wallowa Valley; his people's struggle to keep their homeland as white settlers invaded; the tragedy of the Nez Perce war and subsequent confinement to a reservation; and Chief Joseph's persistent efforts to return his people to their homeland in what is now Oregon. The author frequently quotes from Chief Joseph's own account of his life as revealed during the speech he delivered in Washington, D.C. in 1879, the authenticity of which is now questioned by some scholars. Overall, this book is well-researched and readable. Illustrated with archival photographs. Includes notes, a bibliography, a chronology, and an index.

NEZ PERCE NON-FICTION

Brown, Mark H. The Flight of the Nez Perce. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons; 1967. 480 pages. (secondary).

This is an account of the Nez Perce War and the unsuccessful flight of the Nez Perce to freedom in Canada in 1877. The author, a retired lieutenant colonel in the U.S. army, explains that he is not a historian and that "this study is not a history." Some of the book's conclusions are in disagreement with usual interpretations of the Nez Perce War; for example, the idea that Chief Joseph was not the real leader of the Nez Perce force. The author is critical of both Nez Perce and white narratives collected on the war, all of which he finds full of "faulty memories, personal bias, and prejudice." The book includes extensive notes, a bibliography, and an index.

Marrin, Albert. War Clouds in the West: Indians and Cavalrymen 1860--1890. New York: Atheneum; 1984. 220 pages. (upper elementary).

As the title indicates, this book focuses on military actions in the U.S.-Indian wars in the West (1860--90). The first chapter discusses traditional Plains lifeways, with much of the focus on men's activities. Subsequent chapters describe US attacks on the Cheyenne, Sioux, Nez Perce and Apache peoples, written mainly from a non-Indian point of view. Indian resistance, eventual defeat, and removal to reservations is sometimes movingly described. Though the book is overtly sympathetic to the plight of the Indians, "asides" throughout seem to assume that the reader relates more to white interests: "Best of all [the whites'] hunting rifles had telescopic sights that allowed them to knock a brave out of the saddle a half mile away." The term "brave" is used several times in the book. In one episode, Kiowa spirituality is belittled: "The Kiowas could easily have wiped out the small caravan...had their medicine man not heard an owl, his spirit helper. An owl had hooted, meaning, he said, that they must attack only the second group of whites to come along the road that day. Thus General Sherman kept his red hair thanks to a restless owl." These examples indicate a tendency to perpetuate an "us-and-them" mentality rather than seeking to bridge gaps in intercultural understanding. Illustrated with archival photographs, the book includes maps, a bibliography and an index.

Matthews, Leonard J.; Campion Geoff et al. Indians. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications Inc.; 1989. 30 pages. (The Wild West in American History). (upper elementary).

This book traces the battles waged by various North American tribes and leaders---Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Chief Joseph, Quanah Parker, and Geronimo---ending with the Battle of Wounded Knee. The text is generally sympathetic to Indians but some characterizations are harsh and stereotypical, for example: "Apaches were pitiless, crafty and distrustful, who fought the white men fearlessly." Illustrated with archival photographs and color illustrations, many of which concentrate on scenes of violence and show the Indians as aggressors rather than victims. Includes a chronology of events, 1680--1894.

Osinski, Alice. The Nez Perce. Chicago, IL: Children's Press; 1988. 47 pages. (A New True Book). (lower elementary).

This is a clearly written, easy to understand account of Nez Perce history and traditional lifeways. Some information seems to be lacking, for example, the type of weapons used for hunting or materials used in weaving. Photographs of contemporary Nez Perce show them only posed in traditional costume. Individuals are not identified by name.

Pollock, Dean; Pollock, Dean, illus. Joseph: Chief of the Nez Perce. Portland, OR: Binfords & Mort; 1950. 63 pages. (elementary).

This story of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce focuses on their five battles with the U. S. soldiers as they attempted to flee into Canada. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

NEZ PERCE FICTION

Lesley, Craig. River Song. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1989. 306 pages. (secondary) *.

In this sequel to Winterkill, Danny Kachiah (Nez Perce) and his seventeen-year-old son Jack experience disturbing visions after the death of Jack's mother. Eventually they contact a Native healer for help in interpreting their experiences. This beautifully written novel captures many aspects of contemporary Native culture through its vivid characters and descriptions of lifestyles and the landscape. It is a story about loss---personal loss and the loss of traditional culture---and about rebirth---connecting with self, the past, and with family. The novel effectively places fictional characters in real places and against historical events The descriptions of the effects of the flooding of Celio Falls to create the Dalles Dam on the Columbia River and on the salmon fishing culture are excellent and could be used in conjunction with non-fiction works about the history of the area.

Lesley, Craig. Winterkill. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.; 1984. 306 pages. (secondary/adult).

This contemporary novel centers around Danny Kachiah, a 34-year-old rodeo rider and occasional cowpuncher, who lives on the Umatilla reservation in Oregon. Danny, who is part Umatilla and as he says, "mostly Nez Perce," finds out that his ex-wife Loxie has died in Nebraska, where he finds his son Jack in an American Indian boarding school. Danny brings him back to the reservation and the two slowly grow closer while Jack learns about his Indian heritage. The narrative gives a picture of rodeo and reservation life, as well as some information about Nez Perce history and customs, such as burial preparation and hunting techniques. Some sexual passages. This book is part of a series.

O'Dell, Scott; Hall, Elizabeth. Thunder Rolling in the Mountains. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin; 1992. 128 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

Chief Joseph's daughter, Sound of Running Feet, tells the story of the Nez Perce's flight from their homeland in the Wallowa Valley, their pursuit by the U. S. Army, and eventual surrender as they attempt to reach safety in Canada. Most characters are based on actual Nez Perce and are drawn from recollections of survivors. The manuscript was completed by Elizabeth Hall after Scott O'Dell's death.

Sanderson, William E. Nez Perce Buffalo Horse. Caldwell, ID: Books Demand UMI; 1991. 169 pages. (upper elementary/secondary).

This story is set in what is now Montana in the 1700s, when the Nez Perce had recently acquired horses. Through the adventures of teenage Young Crow, who belongs to the first generation to grow up with horses, the reader learns how life changed for the Nez Perce after the acquisition of the horse. The author has done a creditable job of incorporating this anthropological information into an adventure story, but the literary style may not appeal to today's young reader. There are several instances of the use of the terms "squaw" and "warrior." A frontispiece map shows the locations of the action in the story. Includes black-and-white drawings.

Thomasma, Kenneth; Hundey, Eunice, illus. Soun Tetoken, Nez Perce Boy. Ninth printing of 1984 ed. Jackson, WY: Grandview Publishing Company; 1991. 190 pages. (upper elementary).

The fictional adventures of Soun Tetoken, a Nez Perce boy, are set against his people's 1700-mile flight from vengeful U.S. Army attacks. Some cultural information on subsistence, crafts, and beliefs is included. Includes black-and-white illustrations, photographs, and maps. An epilogue gives additional history.

OKANAGAN TRADITIONAL STORIES

Okanagan Tribal Council; Edwards, Ken (Colville), illus. How Food Was Given. Penticton, B.C.: Theytus Books; 1984. 27 pages. (elementary).

This retelling of an Okanagan story explains how food was given to the people. The story emphasizes the importance of generosity and a selfless nature, as exemplified by its animal and plant characters, and describes the history behind the Okanagan tradition of singing in thanks for food and for healing.

Okanagan Tribal Council; Edwards, Ken (Colville), illus. How Names Were Given. Penticton, B.C.:Theytus Books; 1984. 31 pages. (elementary).

This retelling of an Okanagan story explains how the Great Spirit gave names and special tasks to all of the animals on earth. This delightful story examines the danger of a boastful nature and the charm of an eager heart. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Okanagan Tribal Council; Edwards, Ken (Colville), illus. How Turtle Set the Animals Free: An Okanagan Legend. Penticton, B.C.: Theytus Books; 1984. 27 pages. (elementary).

Black-and-white line drawings illustrate this Okanagan story that recounts how Turtle outwits Eagle, chief of all animals, and frees the Animal People who have been Eagle's slaves. "The legend...demonstrates that good leadership depends on wisdom and vision rather than physical force."

Robinson, Harry (Okanagan).; Wickwire, Wendy, ed. and comp. Nature Power: In the Spirit of an Okanagan Storyteller. Vancouver/Toronto, Canada: Douglas & McIntyre; 1992. 249 pages. (secondary).

This collection represents a portion of stories related to the editor by Okanagan storyteller Harry Robinson. The narratives focus primarily on "nature power," described as "life-sustaining spirituality," and include stories about human encounters with power-helpers ("shoo-MISH"), interactions between individuals and their shoo-MISH, and healing others through shoo-MISH. These stories are written in a poetry-like form. Also includes references and a section of phonetic transcriptions of Okanagan words.

OKANAGAN NON-FICTION

Armstrong, Jeannette C. (Okanagan); Armstrong, Jeannette C., illus. Enwhisteetkwa: Walk in Water. Penticton, BC: Okanagan Indian Curriculum Project; 1982. 44 pages. (elementary).

The story traces the life of a young Okanagan girl over the course of a year as we follow her and her people through their cycle of the seasons. The book contains much information on the traditional lifeways of the Okanagan such as food gathering and preparation, and games. The book also describes encounters with whites. Unfortunately the quality of the illustrations does not equal that of the text. Includes a glossary.

Armstrong, Jeannette (Okanagan); Edwards, Ken, illus. Neekna and Chemai. Canada: Theytus Books; 1984. 43 pages. (elementary).

The seasonal life patterns of the Okanagan before contact are described by two young girls, Neekna and Chemai, living in what is now British Columbia. The importance of elders in transmitting cultural information to the younger generation is stressed.

OKANAGAN FICTION

Armstrong, Jeannette (Okanagan ). Slash. Penticton, British Columbia: Theytus Books; 1985. 254 pages. (secondary).

This is a coming-of-age novel about a young Okanagan, "Slash" Kelasket. The story focuses on Slash's early years growing up on a reserve in British Columbia; his emerging political sensitivity and cultural awareness; and his reconnection with the traditions of his people as he struggles to find his identity. The straightforward, first-person narrative captures the protagonist's reactions to the turbulent and confusing 1960s; and the rise of the American Indian Movement.

PAIUTE NON-FICTION

Stowell, Cynthia D. Faces of a Reservation: A Portrait of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. West Salem, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press; 1987. 189 pages. (secondary) *.

This excellent contemporary portrait of the Warm Springs Reservation in Oregon is presented in two parts. The first consists of photographs and thumbnail sketches of 52 individuals on the reservation---their varied lives, hopes, and fears. Occupations and interests include disc jockey, logger, sheriff, Indian Shaker Church, powwow dancing, and giveaways. The concerns of alcoholism and single-parent families are expressed. The second part includes an excellent history of the reservation, which encapsulates the history of U.S. Government-Indian relations, problems faced by the American Indian community, and the role of tribal government.

SAHAPTIN (WARM SPRINGS) NON-FICTION

Stowell, Cynthia D. Faces of a Reservation: A Portrait of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. West Salem, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press; 1987. 189 pages. (secondary) *.

See annotation under Paiute Non-Fiction.

SHUSWAP FICTION

Sawyer, Don. Where the Rivers Meet. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Pemmican Publications Inc.; 1988. 147 pages. (upper elementary/secondary) *.

This powerful novel, set in Canada, is written from the viewpoint of Nancy Antoine, a 17-year-old Shuswap girl. Nancy and her Indian friends question the value of the educational system, which they feel is unsympathetic, impersonal, rigid, and fails to prepare them for life. Offsetting this is the meaningful, individualized education Nancy receives from an elder of her tribe that gives her the inner strength to challenge the school administration. Her convictions inspire her fellow students to join her in pushing for change. Readers will find themselves engrossed in this action-filled novel.

UMATILLA

Lesley, Craig. River Song. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1989. 306 pages. (secondary) *.

See annotation under Nez Perce Fiction.

Lesley, Craig. Winterkill. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.; 1984. 306 pages. (secondary/adult).

See annotation under Nez Perce Fiction.

WARM SPRINGS (See SAHAPTIN)

WASCO NON-FICTION

Stowell, Cynthia D. Faces of a Reservation: A Portrait of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. West Salem, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press; 1987. 189 pages. (secondary) *. See annotation under Paiute Non-Fiction.

WY-AM NON-FICTION

McKeown, Martha Ferguson; McKeown, Archie, photog. Come to Our Salmon Feast. Portland, OR: Binfords & Morts; 1959. 78 pages. (elementary).

The book documents the last time that the Wy-am Indians celebrated their annual salmon harvest at Celilo Falls, Oregon. In 1959 this area was flooded for the Dalles Dam, necessitating the Wy-ams' re-location. Unfortunately, how the Wy-am reacted to their imminent removal is not discussed. Each aspect of the feast is illustrated with full-page black-and-white photographs. Though the non-Indian author has been adopted into the Wy-am tribe, a few stereotypical terms are used, such as "warriors and maidens" where "boys and girls" would suffice.

McKeown, Martha Ferguson; McKeown, Archie, photog. Linda's Indian Home. Portland, OR: Binfords and Morts; 1969, 1956. 79 pages. (upper elementary).

This book was written to counteract stereotypical images of American Indians and to record the 1950s lifeways of the Wy-am on the Columbia River in Oregon. The non-Indian author has been adopted by the Wy-am, yet a patronizing attitude underlies some of the descriptions. For example, Linda's mother proudly dresses her child like a white doll. The book, built around a series of appealing black-and-white photographs, describes daily activities (child-rearing, fishing, fish-processing) in a realistic, unromanticized way, sometimes comparing 1950s life with that of the past as recalled by older people.

YAKIMA NON-FICTION

Schuster, Helen. The Yakima. New York, NY: Chelsea House; 1990. 111 pages. Frank W. Porter III, Gen. Ed., Indians of North America. (upper elementary/secondary) * .

This book presents an overview of the pre-contact lifeways of the Yakima of the western part of the Columbia Plateau, in what is now south-central Washington State. It traces the changes to Yakima culture in the 18th and 19th centuries that resulted from contact and trade with Plains Indians, fur trappers and traders, white settlers, and missionaries. The book includes information on the effects of the treaty of 1855, the establishment of the reservation system, the consolidation of formerly independent bands and tribes into the Yakima Nation, and the Dawes Act of 1887. The struggles of the Yakima to hold onto their land and resources in the present century are also discussed. The book highlights the devastating effects of the flooding of salmon fisheries on the Columbia River as the Dalles Dam and other hydroelectric projects were constructed. Includes a color photo spread illustrating the effects of trade on Yakima material culture, a bibliography, and the Yakima-at-a-Glance. Well-illustrated with black-and-white photographs and drawings.


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