The research for this paper took many months of perseverance, following
one lead after another. Vicki Simon, an intern who later became
a contractor, served as my assistant and helped immensely with the research.
Other interns who worked on the project, without whom it would have
taken months longer to complete, were Catherine J. Adams, Andrea Kehler,
Eleni Glekas, Kathy Mancuso, Christina Redmond, and Kristen H. Zeiser.
Felicia Pickering, Museum Specialist, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology
Museum Support Center, was critical in helping to find many of the artifacts
in the Smithsonian collection that matched the manikin's. She
discovered the connection between the headdress and the feather trailers.
Jane Walsh, Smithsonian, Department of Anthropology, created a
computer comparison of the manikin photographs and a photograph of Red
Cloud that helped to convince us that the manikins were the same and
were representations of Red Cloud. Tom Kavanagh's (1990) early
research on manikins at NMNH was also an important resource for this
project. In addition, Frank Goodyear, Smithsonian National Portrait
Gallery, Department of Photographs, kindly shared with me his visual
history of Red Cloud (soon to be published) and read a draft of this
manuscript, making insightful comments that greatly improved the scope
of this work. Raymond DeMallie, Professor of Anthropology at Indiana
University, a steadfast colleague, helped on many editorial points,
including Siouan history. To all, my deepest thanks.