Return to "Red Cloud's Manikin and His Uncle's Shirt"
 
The Photograph as Artifact
 
The original photograph (Figure 1) is one half of an unidentified stereograph of a manikin dressed in Plains Indian clothing.  Comparative research in the photographic archives of the Smithsonian's National Anthropological Archives and private collections brought to light the following three related prints: Figures 2, 3, and 5 as featured below.
Red Cloud manikin
Figure 1: Half of an unidentified, unattributed
stereograph
of the manikin that initiated this research project.
Credit: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives.
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  Figure 2--a full stereograph of the original image--turned out to be a red herring.  Published by J.F. Jarvis, Washington, D.C., and credited to him as the photographer on the mount of the print, it was part of a series of stereographic views that he produced of Washington.  Jarvis identified this image as "115. Red Cloud."  However, further research on the Jarvis stereograph showed that he was not the actual photographer.  His Red Cloud identification was probably printed on the mount at some unknown date when the image was mass produced for inclusion in his series of Washington stereographs.
Jarvis stereograph
Figure 2: Stereograph of the manikin credited to J. F. Jarvis, 
Washington, D.C..  Published at unknown dates.
Credit: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives.
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  Figure 3 has a copyright date of 1873 printed on the mount with identification of the photographer as C. Seaver Jr.  The print was identified as "Indian Chief."  The essay on the back of the stereograph was titled "The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.," thus providing verification of the locale and giving information on the Smithsonian and the manikin's location on the ground floor of the Smithsonian Castle.  Verification of the copyright date was obtained at the Library of Congress.  The photographer listed was Charles or Chandler Seaver, Jr. (b.1839 d.1879).
Seaver stereograph
Figure 3: Stereograph identified as "Indian Chief." Credited to C. Seaver, Jr. of
Mass., who 
turned out to be the photographer.
Credit: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives.
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Seaver stereograph, back
Figure 4:  Description printed on the back of the stereograph credited to the photographer

C. Seaver, Jr.  In May of 1873, this and 5 other stereographs by Seaver were deposited in
the Library of Congress and copyrighted by Charles Pollock of Boston, who owned a major
publishing house of stereos.
Credit: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives.
 

Surviving prints of Figure 5 are credited to C. Seaver.  A stereograph of a Japanese warrior manikin (Figure 6), taken at the same time and place, is also credited to him.  The images were taken in 1873 in the Smithsonian's first photo lab.
1873 stereograph
Figure 5: Half of a stereograph of the same
manikin taken in the first Smithsonian photograph
lab in 1873, probably before it was installed in the
museum's display area. Credit: Private collection.
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Japanese warrior
Figure 6:  "Japanese Warrior."  Half of
a stereograph. One of the 5 stereographs
by Seaver that was copyrighted and sold
by Charles Pollock. Credit: Private collection.
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